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Cerium and lanthanides are known the light group rare earth element. There are no mining, which contains only cerium as the metal component. It is found in minerals that contain all the other lanthanide elements.

The current production of Cerriumdioxide is above 55,000 tones and its market is expected to register a CAGR (compound annual growth rate) of around 8%, during the forecast period 2019 –2024.

As a Primary Resources
Monazite and Bastnäsite are presently the two more important sources of cerium and lanthanides. As a primary resource Monazite, is a phosphate mineral, which constitutes around 42–51% Ce along with 4–12% thorium and a variable amount of uranium.

As other primary resource Bastnäsite concentrate contains about 70–74% REO having 50% Ce with a significant amount of Nd (Neodymium).

As a Secondly Resources
There are many application areas. With the increasing request of lanthanides and their compounds in different technological applications in electronic devices, lasers equipment, superconductors, batteries and super magnets, separation, and recycling of lanthanides from different secondary resources have recently drawn attention.


Cerium is used as a catalyst in automobile and nuclear chemistry, NiMH batteries, FCC catalyst, autocatalyst, petroleum refining, polishing agents, as a component in glass. It is also used in car coatings, CFLs, LEDs, LCD backlights, plasma screens, which later becomes a secondary source of cerium recovery.

Nowadays, different industrial processes are used to recovery&recycling rare earth metals from mining and other resource. Therefore, Pretreatment is required to recovery rare metals. The source is first subjected to crushing, followed by beneficated using flotation, magnetic, gravity or electrostatic separation. It is then subjected to chemical treatments. Proses Makina offers eco-friendly recycling and refining services at this stage.